Science

These tiny shells know how much ice there is on Earth

Foraminifera – tiny, single-celled marine life forms – build gorgeous houses that record how much ice there is on the planet.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
– Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
– Share this video with your friends and family
– Leave us a comment (we read them!)

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:

– Foraminifera: a class of single-celled marine organisms – protists, not animals – that live either near the surface (“planktonic foraminifera”) or on the seafloor (“benthic foraminifera”). Called forams for short.

– Climate proxy: something that tells us what the climate was like in the past, such as data from the thickness of tree rings, the composition of gases trapped in ancient ice, historical human records of annual bloom times (eg the long-recorded bloom dates of cherry trees in Kyoto, Japan), or the ratios of certain stable isotopes found in shells, corals, or other biogenic substances

– Oxygen-18: a stable isotope of oxygen that contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons, rather than the 8 protons and 8 neutrons of “regular” oxygen (oxygen-16). The ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in seawater (and sea shells) can be used as a proxy for the global average temperature

– Ice sheet: a permanent layer of ice covering land, as found in polar regions (and as distinguished from sea ice, like the stuff that floats at the north pole in the Arctic ocean). Combined, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets contain more than 99% of the total freshwater ice on Earth.

FUN LINKS
***********
If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like:
The Tiniest Fossils by the AMNH – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLSa8cGJixQ
Orbulina feeding on Artemia – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYQNt52tiVU
Mysterious Web Masters – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0WbN34Mh7k

CREDITS
*********
Script Writer: Emily Elert | Script Writer, Director & Narrator
Kate Yoshida | Script Editor
Ever Salazar | Illustration, Video Editing & Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

Special thanks to Professor Lee Kump of Penn State University and Professor Howie Spero of UC-Davis for lending their advice, expertise, and patience to the making of this video!

This video was supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation. To learn more, visit https://www.heisingsimons.org/

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Emily Elert • David Goldenberg
Henry Reich • Alex Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

IMAGE CREDITS
*****************
Cribrohantkenina inflata – Paul Pearson
https://museum.wales/articles/2007-08-03/Up-close-with-nature/

Elphidium macellum, Bulimina and Calcarina hispida by foraminifera.eu
http://www.foraminifera.eu/

Globigerina – Hannes Grobe
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/biodiversity/planktonic-forminera.html

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth
Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Hays, J. D., Imbrie, J., & Shackleton, N. J. (1976). Variations in the Earth’s Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science, 194(4270), 1121-1132.
Abstract: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/194/4270/1121

Kendall, C., & McDonnell, J.J. (1998). Fundamentals of Isotope Geochemistry. In Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology (pp. 51-86). Eds: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.
Link: http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/isopubs/itchch2.html#2.3

Kucera, M. (2007). Planktonic Foraminifera as Tracers of Past Oceanic Environments. In Developments in Marine Geology, Volume 1, (pp. 213-262).
Link: http://pmc.ucsc.edu/~apaytan/290A_Winter2014/pdfs/2007%20Proxies%20Chapter%20six.pdf

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for Annual 2015, published online January 2016, retrieved on November 28, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201513.

Sachs, J., & Steig, E. (2010) Lecture on Isotopes and Air Temperature. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Link: http://courses.washington.edu/proxies/AirTemperatureLecture2_2010.pdf

Shanahan, T. (2010). Lecture on Oxygen Isotopes. University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Link: http://www.geo.utexas.edu/courses/302c/L16-N.pdf

Articles You May Like

20 Jolly Christmas Facts!
Winning at Rock Paper Scissors – Numberphile
What Does Dark Energy Really Do?
Black Lawmakers Walk Out As Mississippi Senate Passes Anti-‘Critical Race Theory’ Bill
Le bonheur à tout prix | Bruno Lallement | TEDxAlsace

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *