# Math

Tadashi Tokieda is back. This time talking about stability, instability and train wheels. More Tadashi videos: http://bit.ly/tadashi_vids Numberphile is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI): http://bit.ly/MSRINumberphile We are also supported by Science Sandbox, a Simons Foundation initiative dedicated to engaging everyone with the process of science. NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile

Asha and Lata are two sisters with mathematically interesting ages. If you write Lata’s age after Asha’s, you get a 4 digit perfect square. Amazingly the same thing happens if you repeat the exercise in 11 years. How old are Asha and Lata currently? 0:00 Problem 1:09 Difference of squares 2:25 Solution Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send

James Maynard on discoveries about large gaps between prime numbers. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ More Maynard videos: http://bit.ly/JamesMaynard Prime Playlist: http://bit.ly/primevids The 20 August paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1408.4505 The 21 August paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1408.5110 Terry Tao interview: https://youtu.be/MXJ-zpJeY3E Numberphile is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI): http://bit.ly/MSRINumberphile We are also supported

Thanks to Thinh for suggesting this problem! What is the area of a single square? A version of this was given to 12-13 year olds in Vietnam. I admit I didn’t see the trick, but it is a fun one! VN Express (in Vietnamese) https://vnexpress.net/bai-toan-cau-kinh-7-o-vuong-4169822.html Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address at end

The Prisoner’s Dilemma is the most famous problem in game theory, as it shows that individuals who make rational decisions might end up in an outcome that’s worse for everyone in the group. In other words, individual rationality does not imply group rationality. Watch a higher quality version of this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJCGTNIwmv8 You can also

Can you solve this equation? Thanks to Hrigved for the suggestion! Reference https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/438452/find-all-real-numbers-such-that-sqrtx-frac1x-sqrt1-frac1x Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address at end of many videos). I may not reply but I do consider all ideas! If you buy from the links below I may receive a commission for sales. (As an Amazon Associate I

This is a nice little logic puzzle from Terry Stickels! Books by Terry Stickels (including “Contemporary Brainteasers”) http://www.terrystickels.com/books.html Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address in video). I consider all ideas though can’t always reply! Like many YouTubers I use popular software to prepare my videos. You can search for animation software tutorials on

Can you solve this fun little geometry puzzle? Thanks to Roman for the suggestion! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address at end of many videos). I may not reply but I do consider all ideas! If you buy from the links below I may receive a commission for sales. (As an Amazon Associate

See more links about the dice in the full description below… More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Extra footage at Numberphile2: https://youtu.be/pCCtcqyazOE Check Henry’s book about 3D printing math: http://amzn.to/2cWhY3R More about dice designs: http://bit.ly/AboutDice Buy these dice and others at: http://bit.ly/DiceLabDice Some dice are also available from our UK friends at

Thanks to George Tan for suggesting this problem! It is from the 2019 SPM paper in Malaysia. Many students cried after taking the exam, and many teachers found the problems to be very challenging as well. (This means the problems were hard given the syllabus and expectations of the exam–no need to let us know

Tadashi’s back (for the final video in this mini series) demonstrating the Kendama and some angular momentum. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Tadashi Tokieda will be back on Numberphile soon. Here’s a playlist of his videos: http://bit.ly/tadashi_vids Kendama also known as bilboquet or boliche or bolero. Video by Brady Haran and

Two boats make a round trip from opposite shores of a lake. They meet and pass at 500 units from the left shore, then at 300 units from the right shore. The boats move at a constant speed and turn around instantly from the shores. What is the distance between the shores? What is the

Neil Sloane discusses peaceable queens and chess. Check out Brilliant (get 20% off their premium service): https://brilliant.org/numberphile (sponsor) More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Learn more at the OEIS entry (loads of links): https://oeis.org/A250000 References: Ainley, Stephen. Mathematical Puzzles. London: G Bell & Sons, 1977. Yukun Yao and Doron Zeilberger, Numerical and

Matt Parker talks about numbers – as he often does. His book “Humble Pi” is at: http://bit.ly/Humble_Pi More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ The book on Amazon: https://amzn.to/2NKposg Numberphile podcast is on your podcast player. Or the website is: https://www.numberphile.com/podcast And it’s on YouTube too: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Pod_Playlist The Knight’s Tour T-Shirt is in

This is a fun algebra problem. Can you figure it out? Thanks to Aslah from India for the suggestion! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address at end of many videos). I may not reply but I do consider all ideas! If you buy from the links below I may receive a commission for

Can you solve this geometry problem? Thanks to Lucas from Brazil for the suggestion! Kangaroo Maths 2020 https://www.matematica.pt/en/docs/kangaroo/enunciados/2020/2020_Grade9-10.pdf Proof of inscribed angle theorem https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/hs-geo-circles/hs-geo-inscribed-angles/a/inscribed-and-central-angles-proof Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address at end of many videos). I may not reply but I do consider all ideas! If you buy from the links below I

Is 1 a prime number? Apparently not. Dr James Grime explains. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ James Grime’s website is: http://singingbanana.com/ NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile Numberphile tweets: https://twitter.com/numberphile Subscribe: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Sub Videos by Brady Haran Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile Brady’s videos subreddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/BradyHaran/ Brady’s latest videos across all channels: http://www.bradyharanblog.com/ Sign

Can you solve this tricky math problem? Thanks to Asad for the suggestion! Art of Problem Solving 2019 AIME Problem 3 (there are many solution methods) https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php/2019_AIME_I_Problems/Problem_3 Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address in video). I cannot reply to everyone but I consider all ideas! Like many YouTubers I use popular software to

Extended math version: http://youtu.be/ugbWqWCcxrg?t=2m32s A version for Dummies: https://youtu.be/7u6kFlWZOWg More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ This video features Lisa Goldberg, an adjunct professor in the Department of Statistics at University of California, Berkeley. Support us on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile Numberphile tweets: https://twitter.com/numberphile Subscribe: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Sub Numberphile is

Happy #PiDay! When two of the hardest tests in the world cover the same problem, you know it’s a big deal. References Wikipedia article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof_that_22/7_exceeds_%CF%80 Putnam exam 1968 A1 https://prase.cz/kalva/putnam/putn68.html JEE Advanced 2010 Paper Solutions Part-1 | IIT-JEE | Strategy, Tips, & Tricks | Paper Discussion (see around 55:30) Proving 22/7 is greater than PI

In the past 5 months, all of Mark Rober’s videos have been #1 trending on YouTube. He put his success in perspective by analogy to a statistical experiment of flipping coins. Some people pointed out the calculation wasn’t quite correct, so I thought it would be a great topic for a video. Mark Rober tweet

Can you solve this challenging problem from the Mathematical Olympiad of Singapore? Thanks to Truong from Vietnam for the suggestion! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address in video). I cannot reply to everyone but I consider all ideas! Like many YouTubers I use popular software to prepare my videos. You can search for

Can you solve this challenging Valentine’s Day problem? Thanks to Stéphane from Belgium for the suggestion! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address at end of many videos). I may not reply but I do consider all ideas! If you buy from the links below I may receive a commission for sales. (As an

Can you solve this “coffin” problem? Thanks to Rahul for the suggestion! Special thanks this month to: Kyle, Mike Robertson, Michael Anvari. Thanks to all supporters on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/mindyourdecisions Adapted from problem 4 of Jewish Problems by Tanya Khovanova, Alexey Radul https://arxiv.org/abs/1110.1556v2 Coffin Problem ft. blackpenredpen: Cube and Cube Root (Mu Prime Math) Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1

This was asked to students in Indonesia. Can you figure it out? Special thanks this month to: Michael Anvari, Kyle, Mike Robertson. Thanks to all supporters on Patreon! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address in video). I cannot reply to everyone but I consider all ideas! Like many YouTubers I use popular software

The Dynamical Uniform Boundedness Conjecture with Dr Holly Krieger. Extra from this interview: https://youtu.be/v4LWFzTyhpU Dr Krieger on the Numberphile Podcast: https://youtu.be/QmfQQzjpdpM More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ More videos with Holly: http://bit.ly/HollyKrieger Holly’s website: https://www.dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~hk439/ She is the Corfield Lecturer at the University of Cambridge as well as a Fellow at Murray

Happy Pi Day! At 3/14/15 at 9:26 the time will be accurate to pi for 7 decimal places. What’s your favorite fact about pi? Links to proofs and more below in the description. 1. The definition 00:10 Related: the area of circle intuitive explanation 2. Pi is irrational 00:47 Proof (video) Proof (blog post) http://mindyourdecisions.com/blog/2013/11/08/proving-pi-is-irrational-a-step-by-step-guide-to-a-simple-proof/

A little extra trick based on some of the Mobius cutting videos we recently published. Featuring Tadashi Tokieda. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ MORE: http://bit.ly/tadashi_vids Support us on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile Numberphile tweets: https://twitter.com/numberphile Subscribe: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Sub Numberphile is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute

What fraction of the entire circle is shaded? Special thanks this month to: Michael Anvari, Kyle, Mike Robertson. Thanks to all supporters on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/mindyourdecisions Jobbings, A. (2011). The Mathematical Gazette https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/mathematical-gazette/article/9564-two-semicircles-fill-half-a-circle/6365F0D492DF2E682E71A891C782CAF6 The chalice problem Azimuth Project (John Carlos Baez) Geometry Puzzles Folding proof by Greg Egan http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/mathematical/semicircle_puzzle_egan.gif Cut The Knot https://www.cut-the-knot.org/proofs/Semicircles.shtml Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send

Tadashi Tokieda cuts various combinations of loops and Mobius loops – with surprising results. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Part 2: https://youtu.be/mh3eMt09EAs And more: http://bit.ly/tadashi_vids Support us on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile Numberphile tweets: https://twitter.com/numberphile Subscribe: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Sub Numberphile is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute

Catch a more in-depth interview with Ben Sparks on our Numberphile Podcast: https://youtu.be/-tGni9ObJWk Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) by clicking https://brilliant.org/numberphile More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Golden seeds limited edition T-Shirt: https://teespring.com/NP-Seeds More Golden Ratio stuff: http://bit.ly/Golden_Ratio More Ben Sparks Numberphile videos: http://bit.ly/Sparks_Playlist Ben’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/SparksMaths Ben’s website: www.bensparks.co.uk

Thanks to Himanshu from India for sending me this problem! It was part of a math competition where you had about 1 minute to solve each problem (I admit I took much longer). Can you figure out the area of the folded rectangle? Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Playlist to watch all videos on MindYourDecisions: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=UUHnj59g7jezwTy5GeL8EA_g Thanks to

Cliff Stoll is passionate about Klein Bottles. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Don’t miss the video about how he uses a robot to store 1,000 bottles UNDER his house… https://youtu.be/-k3mVnRlQLU More videos on Klein Bottles: http://bit.ly/KleinBottles ACME Klein Bottles: http://bit.ly/ACME_Klein Support us on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook:

A cylindrical can with volume V can be made in different ways. The cylinder can be wide and short (large radius and small height), or it can be narrower and taller (small radius and larger height). Which shape uses the least material? That is, which can has the least surface area? Solve for the ratio

Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Tony Padilla is an associate professor of physics at the University of Nottingham. Here he discusses the zeta function and Apéry’s Constant. More Tony videos: http://bit.ly/Padilla_Numberphile Tony’s Tweet: https://twitter.com/DrTonyPadilla/status/828527018081918976 Roger Apéry pics courtesy of François Apéry Numberphile is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Research

Photomath can’t solve this, and neither can Mathway, Symbolab, or Desmos. Can you? I explain how you can. A similar problem was given to high school students in Massachusetts, and you really have to know what you’re doing to figure it out. Thanks to all patrons! Special thanks this month to: Shrihari Puranik Richard Ohnemus

This problem went viral after it appeared on a Math Olympiad test for talented students in Singapore. It’s not a trick question! Here’s the problem, which I have very slightly re-worded for clarity. Blog post (detailed text explanation): http://mindyourdecisions.com/blog/2015/04/14/when-is-cheryls-birthday-answer-to-viral-math-puzzle/ Source: https://www.facebook.com/kennethjianwenz/photos/a.173663129479243.1073741827.167504136761809/385751114937109/?type=1&theater Official Solution: http://mothership.sg/2015/04/p5-logic-question-is-actually-a-math-olympiad-question-for-sec-3-and-4-students/ Albert and Bernard have just become friends with Cheryl, and they

French numbers can pose problems for non-native speaker – especially when you move beyond 70. Also discussing problems with phone numbers and commas! More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Featuring Dr Paul Smith from the University of Nottingham. The French and marks out of 20: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzrRkhU248A A little extra unlisted bit from

Can you solve for the shaded area? Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address in video). I consider all ideas though can’t always reply! Like many YouTubers I use popular software to prepare my videos. You can search for animation software tutorials on YouTube to learn how to make videos. Be prepared–animation is time

Runners X, Y, Z compete in a 1000 m race. If X gives Y a 50 m start, they finish together; if X gives Z a 69 m start they finish together. What start does Y have to give Z so they finish together? Source This is adapted from India’s Civil Services Exam. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1

First in a series of videos about knots. Here we have Carlo H. Séquin from UC Berkeley. More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ More videos to come at: http://bit.ly/Knot-a-Phile Edit and animation by Pete McPartlan. Film and interview by Brady Haran With thanks to Rob Scharein for the use of his software

This challenging geometry problem appeared on one of the hardest math competitions (the Putnam exam), and there is a neat way to solve it! The Putnam Exam has legendary difficulty: the average (median) score is usually 1 out of a possible 120 points. No calculators allowed though, and you have to prove everything very carefully.

More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓ Brady’s Movember Page: http://bit.ly/BradyMo See full description for list of Connect 4 links. John Tromp’s page: http://bit.ly/TrompNumberphile James Allen’s Connect Four book: http://bit.ly/AllenBook James Allen: http://james.fabpedigree.com/ OEIS: https://oeis.org/A212693 Victor Allis paper: http://bit.ly/AllisPaper NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile Numberphile tweets: https://twitter.com/numberphile Subscribe: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Sub Videos by

Thanks to Surjadi from Indonesia for the suggestion! Twitter Cshearer41 A square is split into five rectangles with equal areas. What’s the area of the square? pic.twitter.com/wtuEjxMASI — Catriona Agg (@Cshearer41) July 11, 2020 solution by @birkhofyan pic.twitter.com/3EIij7DjaU — Birkan Yıldız (@birkhofyan) July 11, 2020 Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Send me suggestions by email (address in video).

Thanks to Matej for suggesting this problem! This is from a math competition for 14 year olds in Croatia. While the problem is challenging, “you should be able to solve it” using elementary geometry and algebra. Can you figure it out? Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/MindYourDecisions?sub_confirmation=1 Playlist to watch all videos on MindYourDecisions: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=UUHnj59g7jezwTy5GeL8EA_g This is the only

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